Last Updated on October 4, 2022 by InfraExam

Cybersecurity Essentials 1.12 Final Exam Answers 2021 2022 2023

  1. An organization has recently adopted a five nines program for two critical database servers. What type of controls will this involve?

    • remote access to thousands of external users
    • limiting access to the data on these systems
    • improving reliability and uptime of the servers
    • stronger encryption systems

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      System and data availability is a critical responsibility of a cybersecurity specialists. It is important to understand the technologies, process, and controls used to provide high availability.

  2. You have been asked to implement a data integrity program to protect data files that need to be electronically downloaded by the sales staff. You have decided to use the strongest hashing algorithm available on your systems. Which hash algorithm would you select?

    • SHA-256
    • MD5
    • SHA-1
    • AES

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      MD5 and SHA are the two most popular hashing algorithms. SHA-256 uses a 256-bit hash, whereas MD5 produces a 128-bit hash value.

  3. A cybersecurity specialist is working with the IT staff to establish an effective information security plan. Which combination of security principles forms the foundation of a security plan?

    • secrecy, identify, and nonrepudiation
    • technologies, policies, and awareness
    • encryption, authentication, and identification
    • confidentiality, integrity, and availability

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      The CIA Triad is the foundation upon which all information management systems are developed.

  4. You have been asked to describe data validation to the data entry clerks in accounts receivable. Which of the following are good examples of strings, integers, and decimals?

    • 800-900-4560, 4040-2020-8978-0090, 01/21/2013
    • female, 9866, $125.50
    • male, $25.25, veteran
    • yes/no 345-60-8745, TRF562

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A string is a group of letters, numbers and special characters. An integer is whole number. A decimal is a number that is not a fraction.

  5. Users report that the database on the main server cannot be accessed. A database administrator verifies the issue and notices that the database file is now encrypted. The organization receives a threatening email demanding payment for the decryption of the database file. What type of attack has the organization experienced?

    • man-in-the-middle attack
    • ransomeware
    • Trojan horse
    • DoS attack

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.
  6. A cybersecurity specialist is asked to identify the potential criminals known to attack the organization. Which type of hackers would the cybersecurity specialist be least concerned with?

    • black hat hackers
    • gray hat hackers
    • white hat hackers
    • script kiddies

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Hackers are classified by colors to help define the purpose of their break-in activities.
  7. An executive manager went to an important meeting. The secretary in the office receives a call from a person claiming that the executive manager is about to give an important presentation but the presentation files are corrupted. The caller sternly recommends that the secretary email the presentation right away to a personal email address. The caller also states that the executive is holding the secretary responsible for the success of this presentation. Which type of social engineering tactic would describe this scenario?

    • trusted partners
    • urgency
    • intimidation
    • familiarity

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Social engineering uses several different tactics to gain information from victims.
  8. Smart cards and biometrics are considered to be what type of access control?

    • technological
    • physical
    • administrative
    • logical

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Access control prevents an unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.
  9. HVAC, water system, and fire systems fall under which of the cybersecurity domains?

    • user
    • physical facilities
    • device
    • network

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Cybersecurity domains provide a framework for evaluating and implementing controls to protect the assets of an organization.

  10. What technique creates different hashes for the same password?

    • CRC
    • HMAC
    • SHA-256
    • salting

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Data integrity is one of the three guiding security principles. A cybersecurity specialist should be familiar with the tools and technologies used to ensure data integrity.

  11. Which technology can be implemented as part of an authentication system to verify the identification of employees?

    • SHA-1 hash
    • a virtual fingerprint
    • a Mantrap
    • a smart card reader

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies available that support the CIA triad.

  12. Which type of cybercriminal attack would interfere with established network communication through the use of constructed packets so that the packets look like they are part of the normal communication?

    • packet forgery
    • packet sniffing
    • DNS spoofing
    • rogue Wi-Fi AP

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Cybersecurity specialists need to be familiar with the characteristics of various attacks.

  13. In a comparison of biometric systems, what is the crossover error rate?

    • rate of false negatives and rate of false positives
    • rate of false positives and rate of acceptability
    • rate of acceptability and rate of false negatives
    • rate of rejection and rate of false negatives

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      In comparing biometric systems, there are several important factors to consider including accuracy, speed or throughput rate, and acceptability to users.

  14. Which national resource was developed as a result of a U.S. Executive Order after a ten-month collaborative study involving over 3,000 security professionals?

    • the National Vulnerability Database (NVD)
    • NIST Framework
    • ISO/IEC 27000
    • ISO OSI model

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      There are many tools that a cybersecurity specialist uses to evaluate the potential vulnerabilities of an organization.

  15. The team is in the process of performing a risk analysis on the database services. The information collected includes the initial value of these assets, the threats to the assets and the impact of the threats. What type of risk analysis is the team performing by calculating the annual loss expectancy?

    • loss analysis
    • qualitative analysis
    • quantitative analysis
    • protection analysis

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A qualitative or quantitative risk analysis is used to identify and prioritize threats to the organization.

  16. Which risk mitigation strategies include outsourcing services and purchasing insurance?

    • transfer
    • acceptance
    • reduction
    • avoidance

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Risk mitigation lessens the exposure of an organization to threats and vulnerabilities by transferring, accepting, avoiding, or taking an action to reduce risk.
  17. Which method is used by steganography to hide text in an image file?

    • data obfuscation
    • data masking
    • least significant bit
    • most significant bit

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.
  18. Which technology can be used to ensure data confidentiality?

    • RAID
    • identity management
    • hashing
    • encryption

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies available which support the CIA triad.
  19. Which type of cybercriminal is the most likely to create malware to compromise an organization by stealing credit card information?

    • black hat hackers
    • gray hat hackers
    • script kiddies
    • white hat hackers

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Malware is a tool used by certain types of hackers to steal information.
  20. Which utility uses the Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP)?

    • DNS
    • NTP
    • RIP
    • ping

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      ICMP is used by network devices to send error messages.
  21. Which threat is mitigated through user awareness training and tying security awareness to performance reviews?

    • user-related threats
    • device-related threats
    • cloud-related threats
    • physical threats

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Cybersecurity domains provide a framework for evaluating and implementing controls to protect the assets of an organization. Each domain has various countermeasures available to manage threats.
  22. What Windows utility should be used to configure password rules and account lockout policies on a system that is not part of a domain?

    • Event Viewer security log
    • Computer Management
    • Active Directory Security tool
    • Local Security Policy tool

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities. Local Security Policy, Event Viewer, and Computer Management are Windows utilities that are all used in the security equation.
  23. What is a feature of a cryptographic hash function?

    • Hashing requires a public and a private key.
    • The hash function is a one-way mathematical function.
    • The hash input can be calculated given the output value.
    • The output has a variable length.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Data integrity is one of the three guiding security principles. A cybersecurity specialist should be familiar with the tools and technologies used ensure data integrity.
  24. Passwords, passphrases, and PINs are examples of which security term?

    • authentication
    • identification
    • authorization
    • access

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Authentication methods are used to strengthen access control systems. It is important to understand the available authentication methods.
  25. Which hashing algorithm is recommended for the protection of sensitive, unclassified information?

    • 3DES
    • MD5
    • SHA-256
    • AES-256

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Data integrity is one of the three guiding security principles. A cybersecurity specialist should be familiar with the tools and technologies used ensure data integrity.
  26. An organization allows employees to work from home two days a week. Which technology should be implemented to ensure data confidentiality as data is transmitted?

    • RAID
    • VPN
    • VLANS
    • SHS

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Protecting data confidentiality requires an understanding of the technologies used to protect data in all three data states.
  27. Which statement describes a distributed denial of service attack?”

    • An attacker sends an enormous quantity of data that a server cannot handle.
    • An attacker views network traffic to learn authentication credentials.
    • One computer accepts data packets based on the MAC address of another computer.
    • An attacker builds a botnet comprised of zombies.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.
  28. What is it called when an organization only installs applications that meet its guidelines, and administrators increase security by eliminating all other applications?

    • asset standardization
    • asset identification
    • asset classification
    • asset availability

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      An organization needs to know what hardware and software are present as a prerequisite to knowing what the configuration parameters need to be. Asset management includes a complete inventory of hardware and software. Asset standards identify specific hardware and software products that the organization uses and supports. When a failure occurs, prompt action helps to maintain both access and security.
  29. There are many environments that require five nines, but a five nines environment may be cost prohibitive. What is one example of where the five nines environment might be cost prohibitive?

    • the U.S. Department of Education
    • the front office of a major league sports team
    • the New York Stock Exchange
    • department stores at the local mall

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      System and data availability is a critical responsibility of a cybersecurity specialist. It is important to understand the technologies, process, and controls used to protect provide high availability.
  30. An organization has implemented antivirus software. What type of security control did the company implement?

    • detective control
    • recovery control
    • compensative control
    • deterrent control

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities.
  31. A specialist in the HR department is invited to promote the cybersecurity program in community schools. Which three topics would the specialist emphasize in the presentation to draw students to this field? (Choose three.)

    • high earning potential
    • service to the public
    • a field requiring a PhD degree
    • the CompTIA A+ certification provides an adequate knowledge base for the field
    • a job with routine, day-to-day tasks
    • a career-field in high-demand

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      The increased demand for cybersecurity specialists offers several unique career opportunities.
  32. What approach to availability provides the most comprehensive protection because multiple defenses coordinate together to prevent attacks?

    • diversity
    • obscurity
    • layering
    • limiting

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Defense in depth utilizes multiple layers of security controls.
  33. What are three states of data during which data is vulnerable? (Choose three.)

    • data in-transit
    • data encrypted
    • data in-process
    • data decrypted
    • purged data
    • stored data

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of each of the three states of data to effectively protect data and information. Purged data was stored data. Encrypted and decrypted data can be in any of the three states.
  34. A penetration testing service hired by the company has reported that a backdoor was identified on the network. What action should the organization take to find out if systems have been compromised?

    • Look for unauthorized accounts.
    • Look for policy changes in Event Viewer.
    • Scan the systems for viruses.
    • Look for usernames that do not have passwords.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.
  35. Which statement describes a characteristics of block ciphers?

    • Block ciphers result in compressed output.
    • Block ciphers result in output data that is larger than the input data most of the time.
    • Block ciphers are faster than stream ciphers.
    • Block ciphers encrypt plaintext one bit at a time to form a block.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

  36. What type of application attack occurs when data goes beyond the memory areas allocated to the application?

    • RAM spoofing
    • SQL injection
    • buffer overflow
    • RAM Injection

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  37. Which website offers guidance on putting together a checklist to provide guidance on configuring and hardening operating systems?

    • The National Vulnerability Database website
    • CERT
    • The Advanced Cyber Security Center
    • Internet Storm Center

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      There are several cybersecurity information websites that a cybersecurity specialist uses to evaluate the potential vulnerabilities of an organization. Some of these websites are the National Vulnerability Database, CERT, the Internet Storm Center, and the Advanced Cyber Security Center.

  38. Which two values are required to calculate annual loss expectancy? (Choose two.)

    • exposure factor
    • quantitative loss value
    • annual rate of occurrence
    • single loss expectancy
    • frequency factor
    • asset value

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Single loss expectancy, annualized rate of occurrence, and annualized loss expectancy are used in a quantitative risk analysis

  39. A cyber criminal sends a series of maliciously formatted packets to the database server. The server cannot parse the packets and the event causes the server crash. What is the type of attack the cyber criminal launches?

    • man-in-the-middle
    • SQL injection
    • packet Injection
    • DoS

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  40. Mutual authentication can prevent which type of attack?

    • wireless sniffing
    • man-in-the-middle
    • wireless IP spoofing
    • wireless poisoning

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities.

  41. A user has a large amount of data that needs to be kept confidential. Which algorithm would best meet this requirement?

    • 3DES
    • ECC
    • RSA
    • Diffie-Hellman

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

  42. What are two incident response phases? (Choose two.)

    • containment and recovery
    • mitigation and acceptance
    • detection and analysis
    • prevention and containment
    • risk analysis and high availability
    • confidentiality and eradication

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      When an incident occurs, the organization must know how to respond. An organization needs to develop an incident response plan that includes several phases.

  43. Which cybersecurity weapon scans for use of default passwords, missing patches, open ports, misconfigurations, and active IP addresses?

    • vulnerability scanners
    • password crackers
    • packet analyzers
    • packet sniffers

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      There are many tools that a cybersecurity specialist uses to evaluate the potential vulnerabilities of an organization.

  44. What happens as the key length increases in an encryption application?

    • Keyspace decreases proportionally.
    • Keyspace increases exponentially.
    • Keyspace decreases exponentially.
    • Keyspace increases proportionally.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

  45. Your risk manager just distributed a chart that uses three colors to identify the level of threat to key assets in the information security systems. Red represents high level of risk, yellow represents average level of threat and green represents low level of threat. What type of risk analysis does this chart represent?

    • exposure factor analysis
    • quantitative analysis
    • qualitative analysis
    • loss analysis

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A qualitative or quantitative risk analysis is used to identify and prioritize threats to the organization.

  46. An organization wants to adopt a labeling system based on the value, sensitivity, and criticality of the information. What element of risk management is recommended?

    • asset classification
    • asset availability
    • asset identification
    • asset standardization

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      One of the most important steps in risk management is asset classification.

  47. An organization has determined that an employee has been cracking passwords on administrative accounts in order to access very sensitive payroll information. Which tools would you look for on the system of the employee? (Choose three)

    • password digest
    • reverse lookup tables
    • rouge access points
    • lookup tables
    • rainbow tables
    • algorithm tables

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Tables that contain possible password combinations are used to crack passwords.

  48. What is an impersonation attack that takes advantage of a trusted relationship between two systems?

    • man-in-the-middle
    • spoofing
    • spamming
    • sniffing

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  49. Which statement best describes a motivation of hacktivists?

    • They are part of a protest group behind a political cause.
    • They are curious and learning hacking skills.
    • They are interested in discovering new exploits.
    • They are trying to show off their hacking skills.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Each type of cybercriminal has a distinct motivation for his or her actions.

  50. Which two groups of people are considered internal attackers? (Choose two.)

    • trusted partners
    • hacktivists
    • ex-employees
    • black hat hackers
    • amateurs

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Threats are classified as being from an internal source or external source. A cybersecurity specialist needs to be aware of the source of various threats.

  51. Which hashing technology requires keys to be exchanged?

    • AES
    • HMAC
    • salting
    • MD5

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      The difference between HMAC and hashing is the use of keys.

  52. What type of attack has an organization experienced when an employee installs an unauthorized device on the network to view network traffic?

    • sniffing
    • phishing
    • spamming
    • spoofing

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  53. Alice and Bob use a pre-shared key to exchange a confidential message. If Bob wants to send a confidential message to Carol, what key should he use?

    • the same pre-shared key he used with Alice
    • the private key of Carol
    • the public key of Bob
    • a new pre-shared key

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

  54. Which technology would you implement to provide high availability for data storage?

    • RAID
    • N+1
    • hot standby
    • software updates

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      System and data availability is a critical responsibility of a cybersecurity specialist. It is important to understand the technologies, process, and controls used to provide redundancy.

  55. What is an example of early warning systems that can be used to thwart cybercriminals?

    • ISO/IEC 27000 program
    • Infragard
    • CVE database
    • Honeynet project

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Early warning systems help identify attacks and can be used by cybersecurity specialists to protect systems.

  56. A security specialist is asked for advice on a security measure to prevent unauthorized hosts from accessing the home network of employees. Which measure would be most effective?

    • Implement intrusion detection systems.
    • Implement a firewall.
    • Implement a VLAN.
    • Implement RAID.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Protecting data confidentiality requires an understanding of the technologies used to protect data in all three data states.

  57. What type of attack will make illegitimate websites higher in a web search result list?

    • SEO poisoning
    • DNS poisoning
    • spam
    • browser hijacker

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  58. Which technology can be used to protect VoIP against eavesdropping?

    • SSH
    • strong authentication
    • encrypted voice messages
    • ARP

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Many advanced technologies such as VoIP, streaming video, and electronic conferencing require advanced countermeasures.

  59. What describes the protection provided by a fence that is 1 meter in height?

    • It deters casual trespassers only.
    • The fence deters determined intruders.
    • It offers limited delay to a determined intruder.
    • It prevents casual trespassers because of its height.

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Security standards have been developed to assist organizations in implementing the proper controls to mitigate potential threats. The height of a fence determines the level of protection from intruders

  60. Which two protocols pose switching threats? (Choose two.)

    • RIP
    • IP
    • ICMP
    • WPA2
    • STP
    • ARP

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Network switches are the heart of the modern data communication network. The main threats to network switches are theft, hacking and remote access, and attacks against network protocols.

  61. What technology should be implemented to verify the identity of an organization, to authenticate its website, and to provide an encrypted connection between a client and the website?

    • asymmetric encryption
    • digital signature
    • digital certificate
    • salting

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

  62. The IT department is tasked to implement a system that controls what a user can and cannot do on the corporate network. Which process should be implemented to meet the requirement?

    • user login auditing
    • a set of attributes that describes user access rights
    • a biometric fingerprint reader
    • observations to be provided to all employees

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Access control prevents unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

  63. Which three protocols can use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)? (Choose three.)

    • TKIP
    • 802.11q
    • WPA
    • 802.11i
    • WEP
    • WPA2

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Various protocols can be used to provide secure communication systems. AES is the strongest encryption algorithm.

  64. An organization plans to implement security training to educate employees about security policies. What type of access control is the organization trying to implement?

    • logical
    • physical
    • technological
    • administrative

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Access control prevents an unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

  65. A VPN will be used within the organization to give remote users secure access to the corporate network. What does IPsec use to authenticate the origin of every packet to provide data integrity checking?

    • CRC
    • password
    • salting
    • HMAC

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      HMAC is an algorithm used to authenticate. The sender and receiver have a secret key that is used along with the data to ensure the message origin as well as the authenticity of the data.

  66. The X.509 standards defines which security technology?

    • biometrics
    • strong passwords
    • digital certificates
    • security tokens

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Digital certificates protect the parties involved in a secure communication

  67. Which technology should be used to enforce the security policy that a computing device must be checked against the latest antivirus update before the device is allowed to connect to the campus network?

    • VPN
    • NAC
    • NAS
    • SAN

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies available to enforce its organization’s security policy.

  68. What is a nontechnical method that a cybercriminal would use to gather sensitive information from an organization?

    • social engineering
    • ransomeware
    • man-in-the-middle
    • pharming

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  69. Users report that the network access is slow. After questioning the employees, the network administrator learned that one employee downloaded a third-party scanning program for the printer. What type of malware might be introduced that causes slow performance of the network?

    • phishing
    • worm
    • spam
    • virus

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

  70. Which data state is maintained in NAS and SAN services?

    • encrypted data
    • data in-process
    • data in-transit
    • stored data

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be familiar with the types of technologies used to store, transmit, and process data.

  71. What is the most difficult part of designing a cryptosystem?

    • encryption algorithm
    • reverse engineering
    • key length
    • key management

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

  72. Which methods can be used to implement multifactor authentication?

    • VPNs and VLANs
    • IDS and IPS
    • tokens and hashes
    • passwords and fingerprints

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies available that support the CIA triad.

  73. Keeping data backups offsite is an example of which type of disaster recovery control?

    • preventive
    • corrective
    • management
    • detective

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A disaster recovery plan enables an organization to prepare for potential disasters and minimize the resulting downtime.

  74. Which protocol would be used to provide security for employees that access systems remotely from home?

    • Telnet
    • SCP
    • WPA
    • SSH

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Various application layer protocols are used to for communications between systems. A secure protocol provides a secure channel over an unsecured network.

  75. Which type of networks poses increasing challenges to cybersecurity specialists due to the growth of BYOD on campus?

    • sneaker net
    • wired networks
    • virtual networks
    • wireless networks

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist must be familiar with the types of technologies used to store, transmit, and process data.

  76. In which situation would a detective control be warranted?

    • after the organization has experienced a breach in order to restore everything back to a normal state
    • when the organization needs to look for prohibited activity
    • when the organization needs to repair damage
    • when the organization cannot use a guard dog, so it is necessary to consider an alternative

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Access control prevents an unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

  77. What approach to availability involves using file permissions?

    • layering
    • simplicity
    • obscurity
    • limiting

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      System and data availability is a critical responsibility of a cybersecurity specialist. It is important to understand the technologies, process, and controls used to protect provide high availability.

  78. Which wireless standard made AES and CCM mandatory?

    • WPA2
    • WPA
    • WEP2
    • WEP

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Wireless security depends on several industry standards and has progressed from WEP to WPA and finally WPA2.

  79. What technology should you implement to ensure that an individual cannot later claim that he or she did not sign a given document?

    • asymmetric encryption
    • digital certificate
    • digital signature
    • HMAC

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A digital signature is used to establish authenticity, integrity, and nonrepudiation.

  80. Being able to maintain availability during disruptive events describes which of the principles of high availability?

    • single point of failure
    • system resiliency
    • fault tolerance
    • uninterruptible services

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      High availability can be achieved by eliminating or reducing single points of failure, by implementing system resiliency, and by designing for fault tolerance.

  81. Which law was enacted to prevent corporate accounting-related crimes?

    • The Federal Information Security Management Act
    • Import/Export Encryption Act
    • Sarbanes-Oxley Act
    • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      New laws and regulations have come about to protect organizations, citizens, and nations from cybersecurity attacks.

  82. The awareness and identification of vulnerabilities is a critical function of a cybersecurity specialist. Which of the following resources can be used to identify specific details about vulnerabilities?

    • NIST/NICE framework
    • Infragard
    • ISO/IEC 27000 model
    • CVE national database

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the resources such as the CVE database, Infragard, and the NIST/NISE framework. All can be used to help plan and implement effective an information security management system.

  83. What kind of integrity does a database have when all its rows have a unique identifier called a primary key?

    • referential integrity
    • domain integrity
    • entity integrity
    • user-defined integrity

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Data integrity is one of the three guiding security principles. A cybersecurity specialist should be familiar with the tools and technologies that are used to ensure data integrity.

  84. You have been asked to work with the data collection and entry staff in your organization in order to improve data integrity during initial data entry and data modification operations. Several staff members ask you to explain why the new data entry screens limit the types and size of data able to be entered in specific fields. What is an example of a new data integrity control?

    • a limitation rule which has been implemented to prevent unauthorized staff from entering sensitive data
    • data encryption operations that prevent any unauthorized users from accessing sensitive data
    • data entry controls which only allow entry staff to view current data
    • a validation rule which has been implemented to ensure completeness, accuracy, and consistency of data

      Answers Explanation & Hints:

      Data integrity deals with data validation.

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