Last Updated on July 17, 2021 by InfraExam
312-38 : Certified Network Defender : Part 01
John works as a C programmer. He develops the following C program:
His program is vulnerable to a __________ attack.
- SQL injection
- Buffer overflow
- Cross site scripting
This program takes a user-supplied string and copies it into ‘buffer1’, which can hold up to 10 bytes of data. If a user sends more than 10 bytes, it would result in a buffer overflow.
Drag and drop the terms to match with their descriptions.Explanation:
Following are the terms with their descriptions:
A Trojan horse is a malicious software program that contains hidden code and masquerades itself as a normal program. When a Trojan horse program is run, its hidden code runs to destroy or scramble data on the hard disk. An example of a Trojan horse is a program that masquerades as a computer logon to retrieve user names and password information. The developer of a Trojan horse can use this information later to gain unauthorized access to computers. Trojan horses are normally spread by e-mail attachments. Ping sweep is a technique used to determine which of a range of IP addresses map to live hosts. It consists of ICMP ECHO requests sent to multiple hosts. If a given address is live, it will return an ICMP ECHO reply. A ping is often used to check that a network device is functioning. To disable ping sweeps on a network, administrators can block ICMP ECHO requests from outside sources. However, ICMP TIMESTAMP and ICMP INFO can be used in a similar manner. Spamware is software designed by or for spammers to send out automated spam e-mail. Spamware is used to search for e-mail addresses to build lists of e-mail addresses to be used either for spamming directly or to be sold to spammers. The spamware package also includes an e-mail harvesting tool. A backdoor is any program that allows a hacker to connect to a computer without going through the normal authentication process. The main advantage of this type of attack is that the network traffic moves from inside a network to the hacker’s computer. The traffic moving from inside a network to the outside world is typically the least restrictive, as companies are more concerned about what comes into a network, rather than what leaves it. It, therefore, becomes hard to detect backdoors.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. ________________________ is the complete network configuration and information toolkit that uses multi-threaded and multi-connection technologies in order to be very fast and efficient.
NetRanger is the complete network configuration and information toolkit that includes the following tools: a Ping tool, Trace Route tool, Host Lookup tool, Internet time synchronizer, Whois tool, Finger Unix hosts tool, Host and port scanning tool, check multiple POP3 mail accounts tool, manage dialup connections tool, Quote of the day tool, and monitor Network Settings tool. These tools are integrated in order to use an application interface with full online help. NetRanger is designed for both new and experienced users. This tool is used to help diagnose network problems and to get information about users, hosts, and networks on the Internet or on a user computer network. NetRanger uses multi-threaded and multi-connection technologies in order to be very fast and efficient.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. A _______________device is used for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits.
A biometric device is used for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic, physical, or behavioral traits.
Biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometric characteristics can be divided into two main classes:
1. Physiological: These devices are related to the shape of the body. These are not limited to the fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, hand and palm geometry, and iris recognition, which has largely replaced the retina and odor/scent.
2. Behavioral: These are related to the behavior of a person. They are not limited to the typing rhythm, gait, and voice.
Which of the following analyzes network traffic to trace specific transactions and can intercept and log traffic passing over a digital network? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
- Wireless sniffer
- Spectrum analyzer
- Protocol analyzer
- Performance Monitor
Protocol analyzer (also known as a network analyzer, packet analyzer or sniffer, or for particular types of networks, an Ethernet sniffer or wireless sniffer) is computer software or computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic passing over a digital network. As data streams flow across the network, the sniffer captures each packet and, if needed, decodes and analyzes its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications.
Answer option D is incorrect. Performance Monitor is used to get statistical information about the hardware and software components of a server.
Answer option B is incorrect. A spectrum analyzer, or spectral analyzer, is a device that is used to examine the spectral composition of an electrical, acoustic, or optical waveform. It may also measure the power spectrum.
In which of the following conditions does the system enter ROM monitor mode? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
- The router does not have a configuration file.
- There is a need to set operating parameters.
- The user interrupts the boot sequence.
- The router does not find a valid operating system image.
The system enters ROM monitor mode if the router does not find a valid operating system image, or if a user interrupts the boot sequence. From ROM monitor mode, a user can boot the device or perform diagnostic tests.
Answer option A is incorrect. If the router does not have a configuration file, it will automatically enter Setup mode when the user switches it on. Setup mode creates an initial configuration.
Answer option B is incorrect. Privileged EXEC is used for setting operating parameters.
Which of the following protocols is used for exchanging routing information between two gateways in a network of autonomous systems?
EGP stands for Exterior Gateway Protocol. It is used for exchanging routing information between two gateways in a network of autonomous systems. This protocol depends upon periodic polling with proper acknowledgements to confirm that network connections are up and running, and to request for routing updates. Each router requests its neighbor at an interval of 120 to 480 seconds, for sending the routing table updates. The neighbor host then responds by sending its routing table. EGP-2 is the latest version of EGP.
Answer option B is incorrect. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a maintenance protocol that allows routers and host computers to swap basic control information when data is sent from one computer to another. It is generally considered a part of the IP layer. It allows the computers on a network to share error and status information. An ICMP message, which is encapsulated within an IP datagram, is very useful to troubleshoot the network connectivity and can be routed throughout the Internet.
Answer option A is incorrect. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communication protocol that multicasts messages and information among all member devices in an IP multicast group. However, multicast traffic is sent to a single MAC address but is processed by multiple hosts. It can be effectively used for gaming and showing online videos. IGMP is vulnerable to network attacks.
Answer option D is incorrect. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol that is used in large networks. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) designates OSPF as one of the Interior Gateway Protocols. A host uses OSPF to obtain a change in the routing table and to immediately multicast updated information to all the other hosts in the network.
Which of the following is a 16-bit field that identifies the source port number of the application program in the host that is sending the segment?
- Sequence Number
- Header Length
- Acknowledgment Number
- Source Port Address
Source Port Address is a 16-bit field that identifies the source port number of the application program in the host that is sending the segment.
Answer option C is incorrect. This is a 32-bit field that identifies the byte number that the sender of the segment is expecting to receive from the receiver.
Answer option B is incorrect. This is a 4-bit field that defines the 4-byte words in the TCP header. The header length can be between 20 and 60 bytes. Therefore, the value of this field can be between 5 and 15.
Answer option A is incorrect. This is a 32-bit field that identifies the number assigned to the first byte of data contained in the segment.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. ______________________ is typically carried out by a remote attacker attempting to gain information or access to a network on which it is not authorized or allowed.
- Network reconnaissance
Network reconnaissance is typically carried out by a remote attacker attempting to gain information or access to a network on which it is not authorized or allowed. Network reconnaissance is increasingly used to exploit network standards and automated communication methods. The aim is to determine what types of computers are present, along with additional information about those computers such as the type and version of the operating system. This information can be analyzed for known or recently discovered vulnerabilities that can be exploited to gain access to secure networks and computers. Network reconnaissance is possibly one of the most common applications of passive data analysis. Early generation techniques, such as TCP/IP passive fingerprinting, have accuracy issues that tended to make it ineffective. Today, numerous tools exist to make reconnaissance easier and more effective.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. The _____________is an application layer protocol that is used between workstations and routers for transporting SNA/NetBIOS traffic over TCP sessions.
The Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol (DCAP) is an application layer protocol that is used between workstations and routers for transporting SNA/NetBIOS traffic over TCP sessions. It was introduced in order to address a few deficiencies by the Data Link Switching Protocol (DLSw). The DLSw raises the important issues of scalability and efficiency, and since DLSw is a switch-to-switch protocol, it is not efficient when implemented on workstations. DCAP was introduced in order to address these issues.
John works as a professional Ethical Hacker. He has been assigned the project of testing the security of www.we-are-secure.com. He is using a tool to crack the wireless encryption keys. The description of the tool is as follows:
„It is a Linux-based WLAN WEP cracking tool that recovers encryption keys. It operates by passively monitoring transmissions. It uses Ciphertext Only Attack and captures approximately 5 to 10 million packets to decrypt the WEP keys.“
Which of the following tools is John using to crack the wireless encryption keys?
AirSnort is a Linux-based WLAN WEP cracking tool that recovers encryption keys. AirSnort operates by passively monitoring transmissions. It uses Ciphertext Only Attack and captures approximately 5 to 10 million packets to decrypt the WEP keys.
Answer option B is incorrect. Kismet is a Linux-based 802.11 wireless network sniffer and intrusion detection system. It can work with any wireless card that supports raw monitoring (rfmon) mode. Kismet can sniff 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g, and 802.11n traffic. Kismet can be used for the following tasks:
To identify networks by passively collecting packets
To detect standard named networks
To detect masked networks
To collect the presence of non-beaconing networks via data traffic
Answer option D is incorrect. Cain is a multipurpose tool that can be used to perform many tasks such as Windows password cracking, Windows enumeration, and VoIP session sniffing. This password cracking program can perform the following types of password cracking attacks:
Brute force attack
Answer option A is incorrect. PsPasswd is a tool that helps Network Administrators change an account password on the local or remote system. The command syntax of PsPasswd is as follows:
pspasswd [\\computer[,computer[,..] | @file [-u user [-p psswd]] Username [NewPassword]
Which of the following is a process that detects a problem, determines its cause, minimizes the damages, resolves the problem, and documents each step of response for future reference?
- Incident response
- Incident handling
- Incident management
- Incident planning
Incident response is a process that detects a problem, determines its cause, minimizes the damages, resolves the problem, and documents each step of response for future reference. One of the primary goals of incident response is to “freeze the scene”. There is a close relationship between incident response, incident handling, and incident management. The primary goal of incident handling is to contain and repair any damage caused by an event and to prevent any further damage. Incident management manages the overall process of an incident by declaring the incident and preparing documentation and post-mortem reviews after the incident has occurred.
Answer option B is incorrect. The primary goal of incident handling is to contain and repair any damage caused by an event and to prevent any further damage.
Answer option C is incorrect. It manages the overall process of an incident by declaring the incident and preparing documentation and post-mortem reviews after the incident has occurred.
Answer option D is incorrect. This is an invalid option.
Which of the following is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion?
- Fire sprinkler
- Fire suppression system
- Fire alarm system
- Gaseous fire suppression
An automatic fire alarm system is designed for detecting the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, to report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.
Answer option B is incorrect. A fire suppression system is used in conjunction with smoke detectors and fire alarm systems to improve and increase public safety.
Answer option D is incorrect. Gaseous fire suppression is a term to describe the use of inert gases and chemical agents to extinguish a fire.
Answer option A is incorrect. A fire sprinkler is the part of a fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been reached.
Which of the following is an intrusion detection system that monitors and analyzes the internals of a computing system rather than the network packets on its external interfaces?
A host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) produces a false alarm because of the abnormal behavior of users and the network. A host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) is an intrusion detection system that monitors and analyses the internals of a computing system rather than the network packets on its external interfaces. A host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) monitors all or parts of the dynamic behavior and the state of a computer system. HIDS looks at the state of a system, its stored information, whether in RAM, in the file system, log files or elsewhere; and checks that the contents of these appear as expected.
Answer option D is incorrect. A network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is an intrusion detection system that tries to detect malicious activity such as denial of service attacks, port scans or even attempts to crack into computers by monitoring network traffic. A NIDS reads all the incoming packets and tries to find suspicious patterns known as signatures or rules. It also tries to detect incoming shell codes in the same manner that an ordinary intrusion detection system does.
Answer option A is incorrect. IPS (Intrusion Prevention Systems), also known as Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS), are network security appliances that monitor network and/or system activities for malicious activity. The main functions of “intrusion prevention systems” are to identify malicious activity, log information about said activity, attempt to block/stop activity, and report activity. An IPS can take such actions as sending an alarm, dropping the malicious packets, resetting the connection and/or blocking the traffic from the offending IP address. An IPS can also correct CRC, unfragment packet streams, prevent TCP sequencing issues, and clean up unwanted transport and network layer options.
Answer option C is incorrect. DMZ, or demilitarized zone, is a physical or logical subnetwork that contains and exposes an organization’s external services to a larger untrusted network, usually the Internet. The term is normally referred to as a DMZ by IT professionals. It is sometimes referred to as a Perimeter Network. The purpose of a DMZ is to add an additional layer of security to an organization’s Local Area Network (LAN); an external attacker only has access to equipment in the DMZ rather than any other part of the network.
Which of the following types of VPN uses the Internet as its main backbone, allowing users, customers, and branch offices to access corporate network resources across various network architectures?
- PPTP VPN
- Remote access VPN
- Extranet-based VPN
- Intranet-based VPN
Which of the following is a protocol that describes an approach to providing “streamlined” support of OSI application services on top of TCP/IP-based networks for some constrained environments?
- Network News Transfer Protocol
- Lightweight Presentation Protocol
- Internet Relay Chat Protocol
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Lightweight Presentation Protocol (LPP) is a protocol that describes an approach to providing “streamlined” support of OSI application services on top of TCP/IP-based networks for some constrained environments. This protocol was initially derived from a requirement to run the ISO Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) in TCP/IP-based networks.
This protocol is designed for a particular class of OSI applications, namely those entities whose application context includes only an Association Control Service Element (ACSE) and a Remote Operations Service Element (ROSE).
Answer option D is incorrect. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a computer networking protocol used by hosts (DHCP clients) to retrieve IP address assignments and other configuration information. DHCP uses a client-server architecture. The client sends a broadcast request for configuration information. The DHCP server receives the request and responds with configuration information from its configuration database. In the absence of DHCP, all hosts on a network must be manually configured individually – a time-consuming and often error-prone undertaking. DHCP is popular with ISP’s because it allows a host to obtain a temporary IP address.
Answer option A is incorrect. Answer option C is incorrect. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a chat service, which is a client-server protocol that supports real-time text chat between two or more users over a TCPIP network.
You are an Administrator for a network at an investment bank. You are concerned about individuals breeching your network and being able to steal data before you can detect their presence and shut down their access. Which of the following is the best way to address this issue?
- Implement a strong password policy.
- Implement a strong firewall.
- Implement a honeypot.
- Implement network based antivirus.
A honey pot is designed to attract intruders to a false server that has no real data (but may seem to have valuable data). The specific stated purpose of a honey pot is as a backup plan in case an intruder does gain access to your network.
Answer option B is incorrect. The firewall may help reduce the chance of an intruder gaining access, but won’t help protect you once they have gained access.
Which of the following is the practice of sending unwanted e-mail messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities to an indiscriminate set of recipients? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
- E-mail spam
- Junk mail.
- Email spoofing
- Email jamming
E-mail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted e-mail messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities to an indiscriminate set of recipients.
Answer option C is incorrect. Email spoofing is a fraudulent email activity in which the sender address and other parts of the email header are altered to appear as though the email originated from a different source. Email spoofing is a technique commonly used in spam and phishing emails to hide the origin of the email message. By changing certain properties of the email, such as the From, Return-Path and Reply-To fields (which can be found in the message header), ill-intentioned users can make the email appear to be from someone other than the actual sender. The result is that, although the email appears to come from the address indicated in the From field (found in the email headers), it actually comes from another source.
Answer option D is incorrect. Email jamming is the use of sensitive words in e-mails to jam the authorities that listen in on them by providing a form of a red herring and an intentional annoyance. In this attack, an attacker deliberately includes “sensitive” words and phrases in otherwise innocuous emails to ensure that these are picked up by the monitoring systems. As a result, the senders of these emails will eventually be added to a “harmless” list and their emails will be no longer intercepted, hence it will allow them to regain some privacy.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate word. The ____________________risk analysis process analyzes the effect of a risk event deriving a numerical value.
Quantitative risk analysis is a process to assess the probability of achieving particular project objectives, to quantify the effect of risks on the whole project objective, and to prioritize the risks based on the impact to the overall project risk. The quantitative risk analysis process analyzes the effect of a risk event deriving a numerical value. It also presents a quantitative approach to build decisions in the presence of uncertainty. The inputs for quantitative risk analysis are as follows:
Organizational process assets
Project scope statement
Risk management plan
Project management plan
Which of the following is a tool that runs on the Windows OS and analyzes iptables log messages to detect port scans and other suspicious traffic?
PSAD is a tool that runs on the Windows OS and analyzes iptables log messages to detect port scans and other suspicious traffic. It includes many signatures from the IDS to detect probes for various backdoor programs such as EvilFTP, GirlFriend, SubSeven, DDoS tools (mstream, shaft), and advanced port scans (FIN, NULL, XMAS). If it is combined with fwsnort and the Netfilter string match extension, it detects most of the attacks described in the Snort rule set that involve application layer data.
Answer option C is incorrect. NetRanger is the complete network configuration and information toolkit that includes the following tools: Ping tool, Trace Route tool, Host Lookup tool, Internet time synchronizer, Whois tool, Finger Unix hosts tool, Host and port scanning tool, check multiple POP3 mail accounts tool, manage dialup connections tool, Quote of the day tool, and monitor Network Settings tool. These tools are integrated in order to use an application interface with full online help. NetRanger is designed for both new and experienced users. This tool is used to help diagnose network problems and to get information about users, hosts, and networks on the Internet or on a user computer network. NetRanger uses multi-threaded and multi-connection technologies in order to be very fast and efficient.
Answer option B is incorrect. Hping is a free packet generator and analyzer for the TCP/IP protocol. Hping is one of the de facto tools for security auditing and testing of firewalls and networks. The new version of hping, hping3, is scriptable using the Tcl language and implements an engine for string based, human readable description of TCP/IP packets, so that the programmer can write scripts related to low level TCP/IP packet manipulation and analysis in very short time. Like most tools used in computer security, hping is useful to both system administrators and crackers (or script kiddies).
Answer option A is incorrect. Nmap is a free open-source utility for network exploration and security auditing. It is used to discover computers and services on a computer network, thus creating a “map” of the network. Just like many simple port scanners, Nmap is capable of discovering passive services. In addition, Nmap may be able to determine various details about the remote computers. These include operating system, device type, uptime, software product used to run a service, exact version number of that product, presence of some firewall techniques and, on a local area network, even vendor of the remote network card. Nmap runs on Linux, Microsoft Windows, etc.