Last Updated on July 18, 2021 by InfraExam
312-38 : Certified Network Defender : Part 06
You are taking over the security of an existing network. You discover a machine that is not being used as such, but has software on it that emulates the activity of a sensitive database server. What is this?
- A Polymorphic Virus
- A Virus
- A reactive IDS.
- A Honey Pot
A honey pot is a device specifically designed to emulate a high value target such as a database server or entire sub section of your network. It is designed to attract the hacker’s attention.
Alice wants to prove her identity to Bob. Bob requests her password as proof of identity, which Alice dutifully provides (possibly after some transformation like a hash function); meanwhile, Eve is eavesdropping the conversation and keeps the password. After the interchange is over, Eve connects to Bob posing as Alice; when asked for a proof of identity, Eve sends Alice’s password read from the last session, which Bob accepts. Which of the following attacks is being used by Eve?
- Fire walking
- Cross site scripting
- Session fixation
Eve is using Replay attack. A replay attack is a type of attack in which attackers capture packets containing passwords or digital signatures whenever packets pass between two hosts on a network. In an attempt to obtain an authenticated connection, the attackers then resend the captured packet to the system. In this type of attack, the attacker does not know the actual password, but can simply replay the captured packet. Session tokens can be used to avoid replay attacks. Bob sends a one-time token to Alice, which Alice uses to transform the password and send the result to Bob (e.g. computing a hash function of the session token appended to the password). On his side Bob performs the same computation; if and only if both values match, the login is successful. Now suppose Mallory has captured this value and tries to use it on another session; Bob sends a different session token, and when Mallory replies with the captured value it will be different from Bob’s computation.
Answer option C is incorrect. In the cross site scripting attack, an attacker tricks the user’s computer into running code, which is treated as trustworthy because it appears to belong to the server, allowing the attacker to obtain a copy of the cookie or perform other operations.
Answer option B is incorrect. Firewalking is a technique for gathering information about a remote network protected by a firewall. This technique can be used effectively to perform information gathering attacks. In this technique, an attacker sends a crafted packet with a TTL value that is set to expire one hop past the firewall.
Answer option D is incorrect. In session fixation, an attacker sets a user’s session id to one known to him, for example by sending the user an email with a link that contains a particular session id. The attacker now only has to wait until the user logs in.
Which of the following types of transmission is the process of sending one bit at a time over a single transmission line?
- Unicast transmission
- Serial data transmission
- Multicast transmission
- Parallel data transmission
In serial data transmission, one bit is sent after another (bit-serial) on a single transmission line. It is the simplest method of transmitting digital information from one point to another. This transmission is suitable for providing communication between two participants as well as for multiple participants. It is used for all long-haul communication and provides high data rates. It is also inexpensive and beneficial in transferring data over long distances.
Answer option D is incorrect. In parallel data transmission, several data signals are sent simultaneously over several parallel channels. Parallel data transmission is faster than serial data transmission. It is used primarily for transferring data between devices at the same site. For instance, communication between a computer and printer is most often parallel, allowing the entire byte to be transferred in one operation.
Answer option A is incorrect. The unicast transmission method is used to establish communication between a single host and a single receiver. Packets sent to a unicast address are delivered to the interface recognized by that IP address, as shown in the following figure:
Answer option C is incorrect. The multicast transmission method is used to establish communication between a single host and multiple receivers. Packets are sent to all interfaces recognized by that IP address, as shown in the figure below:
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. ______________management is an area of systems management that involves acquiring, testing, and installing multiple patches (code changes) to an administered computer system.
Patch management is an area of systems management that involves acquiring, testing, and installing multiple patches (code changes) to an administered computer system. Patch management includes the following tasks:
Maintaining current knowledge of available patches
Deciding what patches are appropriate for particular systems
Ensuring that patches are installed properly
Testing systems after installation, and documenting all associated procedures, such as specific configurations required A number of products are available to automate patch management tasks, including RingMaster’s Automated Patch Management, PatchLink Update, and Gibraltar’s Everguard.
Which of the following are used as a cost estimating technique during the project planning stage? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. (Choose three.)
- Function point analysis
- Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
- Expert judgment
- Delphi technique
Delphi technique, expert judgment, and function point analysis are used as a cost estimating technique during the project planning stage. Delphi is a technique to identify potential risk. In this technique, the responses are gathered via a questionnaire from different experts and their inputs are organized according to their contents. The collected responses are sent back to these experts for further input, addition, and comments. The final list of risks in the project is prepared after that. The participants in this technique are anonymous and therefore it helps prevent a person from unduly influencing the others in the group. The Delphi technique helps in reaching the consensus quickly. Expert judgment is a technique based on a set of criteria that has been acquired in a specific knowledge area or product area. It is obtained when the project manager or project team requires specialized knowledge that they do not possess. Expert judgment involves people most familiar with the work of creating estimates. Preferably, the project team member who will be doing the task should complete the estimates. Expert judgment is applied when performing administrative closure activities, and experts should ensure the project or phase closure is performed to the appropriate standards.
A function point is a unit of measurement to express the amount of business functionality an information system provides to a user. Function points are the units of measure used by the IFPUG Functional Size Measurement Method. The IFPUG FSM Method is an ISO recognized software metric to size an information system based on the functionality that is perceived by the user of the information system, independent of the technology used to implement the information system.
Answer option B is incorrect. A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project. PERT stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique, a methodology developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1950s to manage the Polaris
submarine missile program. A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events, or milestones in the project linked by labeled vectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project. The direction of the arrows on the lines indicates the sequence of tasks.
Which of the following provide an “always on” Internet access service when connecting to an ISP? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. (Choose two.)
- Digital modem
- Cable modem
- Analog modem
DSL and Cable modems are used in remote-access WAN technology for connecting to the Internet. Both provide an “always on” Internet access service.
Answer options C and A are incorrect. Analog and Digital modems are not always in ‘ON’ mode when connecting to an ISP. Analog modems transmit analog voice signals, while Digital modems transmit digital signals over a link.
Which of the following types of coaxial cable is used for cable TV and cable modems?
RG-59 type of coaxial cable is used for cable TV and cable modems.
Answer option D is incorrect. RG-8 coaxial cable is primarily used as a backbone in an Ethernet LAN environment and often connects one wiring closet to another. It is also known as 10Base5 or ThickNet.
Answer option A is incorrect. RG-62 coaxial cable is used for ARCNET and automotive radio antennas.
Answer option C is incorrect. RG-58 coaxial cable is used for Ethernet networks. It uses baseband signaling and 50-Ohm terminator. It is also known as 10Base2 or ThinNet.
Which of the following fields in the IPv6 header is decremented by 1 for each router that forwards the packet?
- Flow label
- Next header
- Traffic class
- Hop limit
The hop limit field in the IPv6 header is decremented by 1 for each router that forwards a packet. The packet is discarded when the hop limit field reaches zero.
Answer option B is incorrect. Next header is an 8-bit field that specifies the next encapsulated protocol.
Answer option A is incorrect. Flow label is a 20-bit field that is used for specifying special router handling from source to destination for a sequence of packets.
Answer option C is incorrect. Traffic class is an 8-bit field that specifies the Internet traffic priority delivery value.
Which of the following is a type of computer security that deals with protection against spurious signals emitted by electrical equipment in the system?
- Communication Security
- Physical security
- Emanation Security
- Hardware security
Emanation security is one of the types of computer security that deals with protection against spurious signals emitted by electrical equipment in the system, such as electromagnetic emission (from displays), visible emission (displays may be visible through windows), and audio emission (sounds from printers, etc). Answer option D is incorrect. Hardware security helps in dealing with the vulnerabilities in the handling of hardware.
Answer option B is incorrect. Physical security helps in dealing with protection of computer hardware and associated equipment.
Answer option A is incorrect. Communication security helps in dealing with the protection of data and information during transmission.
Which of the following network devices operate at the network layer of the OSI model? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
A router is a device that routes data packets between computers in different networks. It is used to connect multiple networks, and it determines the path to be taken by each data packet to its destination computer. A router maintains a routing table of the available routes and their conditions. By using this information, along with distance and cost algorithms, the router determines the best path to be taken by the data packets to the destination computer. A router can connect dissimilar networks, such as Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring, and route data packets among them. Routers operate at the network layer (layer 3) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.
A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within a company’s network or at a local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes. In the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with both a router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway, and a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given packet. Most of the gateways operate at the application layer, but can operate at the network or session layer of the OSI model.
Answer option C is incorrect. A repeater operates only at the physical layer of the OSI model.
Answer option B is incorrect. A bridge operates at the data link layer of the OSI model.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. The ______________ layer establishes, manages, and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
The session layer of the OSI/RM controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions, which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol, and also for session check pointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls.
Adam, a malicious hacker, has just succeeded in stealing a secure cookie via a XSS attack. He is able to replay the cookie even while the session is valid on the server. Which of the following is the most likely reason of this cause?
- No encryption is applied.
- Two way encryption is applied.
- Encryption is performed at the network layer (layer 1 encryption).
- Encryption is performed at the application layer (single encryption key).
Single key encryption uses a single word or phrase as the key. The same key is used by the sender to encrypt and the receiver to decrypt. Sender and receiver initially need to have a secure way of passing the key from one to the other. With TLS or SSL this would not be possible. Symmetric encryption is a type of encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt data. Symmetric encryption algorithms are faster than public key encryption. Therefore, it is commonly used when a message sender needs to encrypt a large amount of data. Data Encryption Standard (DES) uses the symmetric encryption key algorithm to encrypt data.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate word. A ______________ policy is defined as the document that describes the scope of an organization’s security requirements.
A security policy is defined as the document that describes the scope of an organization’s security requirements. Information security policies are usually documented in one or more information security policy documents. The policy includes the assets that are to be protected. It also provides security solutions to provide necessary protection against the security threats.
Which of the following is a Unix and Windows tool capable of intercepting traffic on a network segment and capturing username and password?
Ettercap is a Unix and Windows tool for computer network protocol analysis and security auditing. It is capable of intercepting traffic on a network segment, capturing passwords, and conducting active eavesdropping against a number of common protocols. It is a free open source software. Ettercap supports active and passive dissection of many protocols (including ciphered ones) and provides many features for network and host analysis.
Answer option C is incorrect. BackTrack is a Linux distribution distributed as a Live CD, which is used for penetration testing. It allows users to include customizable scripts, additional tools and configurable kernels in personalized distributions. It contains various tools, such as Metasploit integration, RFMON injection capable wireless drivers, kismet, autoscan-network (network discovering and managing application), nmap, ettercap, wireshark (formerly known as Ethereal).
Answer option A is incorrect. AirSnort is a Linux-based WLAN WEP cracking tool that recovers encryption keys. AirSnort operates by passively monitoring transmissions. It uses Ciphertext Only Attack and captures approximately 5 to 10 million packets to decrypt the WEP keys. Answer option D is incorrect. Aircrack is the fastest WEP/WPA cracking tool used for 802.11a/b/g WEP and WPA cracking.
Which of the following standards is a proposed enhancement to the 802.11a and 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN) specifications that offers quality of service (QoS) features, including the prioritization of data, voice, and video transmissions?
The 802.11e standard is a proposed enhancement to the 802.11a and 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN) specifications. It offers quality of service (QoS) features, including the prioritization of data, voice, and video transmissions. 802.11e enhances the 802.11 Media Access Control layer (MAC layer) with a coordinated time division multiple access (TDMA) construct, and adds error-correcting mechanisms for delay-sensitive applications such as voice and video. Answer option D is incorrect. 802.11h refers to the amendment added to the IEEE 802.11 standard for Spectrum and Transmit Power Management Extensions.
Answer option B is incorrect. 802.11n is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11-2007 wireless networking standard to improve network throughput over the two previous standards – 802.11a and 802.11g – with a significant increase in the maximum raw data rate from 54 Mbit/s to 600 Mbit/s with the use of four spatial streams at a channel width of 40 MHz. Answer option A is incorrect. IEEE 802.15 is a working group of the IEEE 802 and specializes in Wireless PAN (Personal Area Network) standards. It includes seven task groups, which are as follows:
1.Task group 1 (WPAN/Bluetooth)
2.Task group 2 (Coexistence)
3.Task group 3 (High Rate WPAN)
4.Task group 4 (Low Rate WPAN)
5.Task group 5 (Mesh Networking)
6.Task Group 6 (BAN)
7.Task group 7 (VLC)
Which of the following key features is used by TCP in order to regulate the amount of data sent by a host to another host on the network?
- Sequence number
- TCP timestamp
- Congestion control
- Flow control
Flow control is the process of regulating the amount of data sent by a host to another host on the network. The flow control mechanism controls packet flow so that a sender does not transmit more packets than a receiver can process. TCP uses a sliding window flow control protocol. In each TCP segment, the receiver specifies in the receive window field the amount of additional received data (in bytes) that it is willing to buffer for the connection. The sending host can send only up to that amount of data before it must wait for an acknowledgment and window update from the receiving host.
Answer option A is incorrect. TCP uses a sequence number for identifying each byte of data.
Answer option B is incorrect. TCP timestamp helps TCP to compute the round-trip time between the sender and receiver.
Answer option C is incorrect. Congestion control concerns controlling traffic entry into a telecommunications network, so as to avoid congestive collapse by attempting to avoid oversubscription of any of the processing or link capabilities of the intermediate nodes and networks and taking resource reducing steps, such as reducing the rate of sending packets. It should not be confused with flow control, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the receiver.
Which of the following representatives in the incident response process are included in the incident response team? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
- Information security representative
- Legal representative
- Technical representative
- Lead investigator
- Human resources
- Sales representative
Incident response is a process that detects a problem, determines the cause of an issue, minimizes the damages, resolves the problem, and documents each step of process for future reference. To perform all these roles, an incident response team is needed. The incident response team includes the following representatives who are involved in the incident response process:
Lead investigator: The lead investigator is the manager of an incident response team. He is always involved in the creation of an incident response plan. The duties of a lead investigator are as follows: Keep the management updated. Ensure that the incident response moves smoothly and efficiently. Interview and interrogate the suspects and witnesses.
Information security representative: The information security representative is a member of the incident response team who alerts the team about possible security safeguards that can impact their ability to respond to an incident.
Legal representative: The legal representative is a member of the incident response team who ensures that the process follows all the laws during the response to an incident.
Technical representative: Technical representative is a representative of the incident response team. More than one technician can be deployed to an incident. The duties of a technical representative are as follows: Perform forensic backups of the systems that are involved in an incident. Provide more information about the configuration of the network or system.
Human resources: Human resources personnel ensure that the policies of the organization are enforced during the incident response process. They suspend access to a suspect if it is needed. Human resources personnel are closely related with the legal representatives and cover up the organization’s legal responsibility.
Which of the following is a device that provides local communication between the datalogger and a computer?
- Controllerless modem
- Optical modem
- Acoustic modem
- Short haul modem
A short haul modem is a device that provides local communication between the datalogger and a computer with an RS-232 serial port. It transmits data up to 6.5 miles over a four-wire unconditioned line (two twisted pairs).
Answer option B is incorrect. An optical modem is a device that is used for converting a computer’s electronic signals into optical signals for transmission over optical fiber. It also converts optical signals from an optical fiber cable back into electronic signals. It provides higher data transmission rates because it uses extremely high capacity of the optical fiber cable for transmitting data.
Answer option C is incorrect. An acoustic modem provides wireless communication under water. The optimum performance of a wireless acoustic modem system depends upon the speed of sound, water depth, existence of thermocline zones, ambient noise, and seasonal change.
Answer option A is incorrect. A controllerless modem is a hardware-based modem that does not have the physical communications port controller circuitry. It is also known as WinModem or software modem. A controllerless modem is very inexpensive and can easily be upgraded with new software.
Which of the following plans is documented and organized for emergency response, backup operations, and recovery maintained by an activity as part of its security program that will ensure the availability of critical resources and facilitates the continuity of operations in an emergency situation?
- Contingency Plan
- Disaster Recovery Plan
- Business Continuity Plan
- Continuity Of Operations Plan
Contingency plan is prepared and documented for emergency response, backup operations, and recovery maintained by an activity as the element of its security program that will ensure the availability of critical resources and facilitates the continuity of operations in an emergency situation.
A contingency plan is a plan devised for a specific situation when things could go wrong. Contingency plans are often devised by governments or businesses who want to be prepared for anything that could happen. Contingency plans include specific strategies and actions to deal with
specific variances to assumptions resulting in a particular problem, emergency, or state of affairs. They also include a monitoring process and “triggers” for initiating planned actions. They are required to help governments, businesses, or individuals to recover from serious incidents in
the minimum time with minimum cost and disruption.
Answer option B is incorrect. A disaster recovery plan should contain data, hardware, and software that can be critical for a business. It should also include the plan for sudden loss such as hard disc crash. The business should use backup and data recovery utilities to limit the loss of data.
Answer option D is incorrect. The Continuity Of Operation Plan (COOP) refers to the preparations and institutions maintained by the United States government, providing survival of federal government operations in the case of catastrophic events. It provides procedures and capabilities to sustain an organization’s essential. COOP is the procedure documented to ensure persistent critical operations throughout any period where normal operations are unattainable.
Answer option C is incorrect. Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is the creation and validation of a practiced logistical plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical (urgent) functions within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption. The logistical plan is called a business continuity plan.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. ______________ is the use of sensitive words in e-mails to jam the authorities that listen in on them by providing a form of a red herring and an intentional annoyance.
Explanation: Email jamming is the use of sensitive words in e-mails to jam the authorities that listen in on them by providing a form of a red herring and an intentional annoyance. In this attack, an attacker deliberately includes “sensitive” words and phrases in otherwise innocuous emails to ensure that these are picked up by the monitoring systems. As a result the senders of these emails will eventually be added to a “harmless” list and their emails will be no longer intercepted, hence it will allow them to regain some privacy.
- Email jamming