Last Updated on October 17, 2019 by InfraExam

NDG Linux Essentials 2.0 Final Comprehensive Exam (Chapter 1-18) Answers

  1. Embedded Systems means:

    • Companies must share their changes
    • You can view the software’s source code
    • Businesses cannot charge anything for the software, only the hardware
    • Systems designed to do a specific task on hardware optimized for only that purpose
    • Users must support the systems themselves
  2. Linux originally only ran on:

    • Xerox copy machines
    • Specialized processor chips
    • Intel 386 PCs
    • Raspberry Pi computers
    • Macintosh
  3. Bundling utilities, management tools, and application software with a Linux kernel is called a:

    • A trademark
    • A distribution of Linux
    • A type of hardware
    • A text editor
  4. A software release cycle describes:

    • How often security fixes are implemented
    • How often the software’s memory is released back to the operating system
    • How often upgrades come out for software
    • How often the computer must be rebooted
    • How often the computer must be upgraded to support new software
  5. Apple’s OS X is:

    (choose three)

    • A fully certified UNIX distribution
    • Tightly integrated with Apple hardware
    • Partially based on code from the FreeBSD project
    • Primarily used to manage network services
    • Derived from Linux
    • Able to natively run Windows binaries
  6. Microsoft Windows:

    (choose three)

    • Is generally backwards compatible with previous versions
    • Offers both desktop and server products
    • Has a Linux compatibility mode
    • Has a short maintenance cycle
    • Has a scripting environment called PowerShell
    • Has a new desktop version every year.
  7. An interpreted programming language:

    (choose two)

    • Requires a compilation step but no linking step
    • Is converted into machine specific instructions as the program runs
    • Tends to offer more features than compiled languages
    • Requires a linking step but no compilation step
    • Takes fewer resources to run than a compiled language
  8. The two main families of Linux shells are:

    (choose two)

    • Bourne Shell
    • Python Shell
    • Korn shell
    • Emacs
    • C Shell
  9. In virtualization, what are the host and guest?

    (choose two)

    • The host is the machine that runs the virtual machines
    • The guest is the machine that runs the virtual machines
    • The terms can be used interchangeably
    • A host is a virtual machine
    • A guest is a virtual machine
  10. Cloud computing is:

    • Requires fewer resources because systems are shared among many users
    • Allows users in different geographical regions to work together in real time
    • All are correct
    • Is made possible by faster internet speeds
    • Is useful for both business and home users
  11. Which of the following are properties of a strong password?

    (choose three)

    • Based on easy to remember items like birthdays
    • Long so that it can be reused on multiple sites
    • Includes symbols
    • At least 10 characters long
    • A mix of upper and lower case
  12. A license where you don’t have access to the source code is called:

    • Sourceless
    • Impaired source
    • Open source
    • Closed source
  13. A copyleft provision in a software license means:

    • You must provide support for your modifications
    • You may not link against third party closed source software
    • If you redistribute the software, you must distribute the source to any changes you make
    • You must provide free copies of the software if you use it
    • You give up your copyright to the software
  14. The Free Software Foundation believes that:

    (choose two)

    • Software should be free to modify
    • People should write software with no expectation of making money
    • Software should not have copyright
    • Software should be free to share
    • No money should ever change hands
  15. What does it mean when a work is placed in the public domain?

    • The work was done by a government agency
    • You may not use the work for commercial purposes
    • The author has died
    • The author has relinquished the copyright on the work
    • You must redistribute changes to the software
  16. The semicolon (;) can be used to separate multiple commands to be executed in order.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  17. To be able to output messages to the screen, use the _______ command:

    • print
    • echo
    • display
    • type
  18. The _______ command will print a list of the commands that you’ve previously executed.

    • list
    • eval
    • exec
    • history
  19. HOME is an example of _________.

    • A path variable
    • A local variable
    • An environment variable
    • An alias
    • An internal command
  20. The directory where additional documentation for software packages most likely can be found is:

    • /var/share/doc
    • /var/lib/doc
    • /usr/software/doc
    • /usr/share/doc
  21. To start searching a man page, the first key you press is:

    • /
    • f
    • s
    • !
  22. To get help on using the info command, execute:

    (choose two)

    • man info
    • info info
    • help info
    • info -q
  23. The _____ command can be used to find any file, not just commands or man pages.

    • whatis
    • locate
    • whereis
    • apropos
  24. Hidden files are files that begin with what character?

    • A period (.)
    • An asterisk (*)
    • A plus (+)
    • A dash (-)
  25. The top-level directory on a Linux system is represented as:

    • /
    • /home
    • /root
    • C:
  26. The ls command without options or arguments…

    • …prompts for a directory to list.
    • …lists the contents of the current directory.
    • …lists the contents of a user’s home directory.
    • …generates an error as this command requires arguments.
  27. The command ls -S will sort files:

    • By size, smallest to largest
    • By modification date, newest to oldest
    • By number of symlinks, largest to smallest
    • By size, largest to smallest
  28. When using the cp command, you must provide both a source and a destination.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  29. Which option can be used with the rm command to prompt before deleting?

    • l
    • A
    • -P
    • -i
  30. Which command would list files that do not begin with a “T” or a “W”?

    • echo /etc/[!TW]*
    • echo /etc/[*TW]!
    • echo /etc/!TW
    • echo /etc/*[TW!]
  31. In general, for which of the following would you want to use lossless compression?

    • A JPEG image
    • A log file
    • An encrypted email
    • A movie
    • An mp3 audio file
  32. You type gzip myfile.tar. What happens?

    (choose two)

    • An error; you forgot to specify the file with -f
    • myfile.tar is unarchived into the current directory
    • myfile.tar is removed
    • An error; you forgot to pass the name of the output file
    • myfile.tar.gz holds a compressed version of myfile.tar
  33. Which command will show what is inside the compressed tarball with a name of foo.tar.gz?

    • tar –tf foo.tar.gz
    • tar –tzf foo.tar.gz
    • tar –xf foo.tar.gz
    • tar –lf foo.tar.gz
    • tar –tjf foo.tar.gz
  34. By default, the zip command replaces uncompressed files with compressed files.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  35. Error messages generated by commands are sent where by default?

    • STDIN
    • Log files
    • STDOUT
    • STDERR
  36. Which of the following commands will display only lines that begin with test?

    • grep *test file.txt
    • grep &test file.txt
    • grep $test* file.txt
    • grep ^test file.txt
  37. Which of the following commands will display lines that contain either start or end?

    • egrep ‘start|end’ file.txt
    • egrep start end file.txt
    • egrep start&end file.txt
    • egrep (start|end) file.txt
  38. A file begins with #!/bin/csh. This means:

    • This is a Perl script
    • The operator should not be using /bin/csh
    • C Shell compatibility mode is enabled
    • Running the script will invoke /bin/csh to interpret the rest of the file
    • Nothing, this is a comment
  39. Most of nano’s commands take the form of:

    • Alt and another character
    • Escape followed by another character
    • The F1 through F12 function keys
    • Mouse clicks
    • Control and another character
  40. The if command looks for what exit code to consider a condition to be true?

    • 255
    • 0
    • 2
    • 1
    • 10
  41. The number of users logged in is in a variable called USERS. How would you test to see if 5 users are logged in?

    • test $USERS –eq 5
    • test $USERS,5
    • test –f USERS=5
    • test $USERS = 5
    • test $USERS –a 5
  42. Which of the following are valid partitioning types?

    (choose two)

    • PC
    • MBR
    • GPT
    • BIOS
  43. Software that allows hardware devices to communicate with the installed operating system is called?

    • Drivers
    • Instructions
    • Packages
    • Programs
  44. Which of the following commands will check hard disk GPT partitions?

    (choose three)

    • sfdisk
    • sgdisk
    • gdisk
    • cgdisk
    • gfdisk
  45. The process (ps) command shows only processes running in the current shell by default.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  46. The free command outputs statistics about:

    • Memory usage
    • Disk usage
    • Software usage
    • CPU usage
  47. Which file contains the information passed to the kernel at boot time?

    • /proc/kernel
    • /proc/kopts
    • /proc/kargs
    • /proc/cmdline
  48. To make changes permanent for kernel parameter files found under /proc/sys, the following file can have entries added to it:

    • /etc/sysinfo.conf
    • /etc/sysctl.conf
    • /etc/procctl.conf
    • /etc/procsys.conf
  49. Which of the following commands will display the IP address on a Linux system?

    • ifconfig
    • route
    • ipconfig
    • dig
  50. The RSA key fingerprint allows the dig command to connect to remote systems.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  51. When issuing the service network restart command, which of the following occurs?

    • …takes down all network interfaces, re-reads all related configuration files and then the networking for the system is restarted.
    • …the networking for the system is stopped and then started back up.
    • …brings up all network interfaces, re-reads all related configuration files and then the networking for the system is restarted.
  52. Which of the following commands can be used to display socket statistics, and supports all major packet and socket types?

    • route
    • ss
    • ifconfig
    • top
  53. Which of the following commands will display the groups that the user bob belongs to?

    • group bob
    • id bob
    • all bob
    • groups -a
  54. Traditional UNIX systems allowed users to belong to how many groups?

    • 65,000
    • 10,000
    • 1
    • 256
    • 16
  55. A value of 0 in the “minimum” password aging field means the user cannot change their password.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  56. Sudo privileges allow users to execute commands as another user.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  57. The first line of this command displays how long the system has been running since being rebooted.

    • id
    • getent
    • who
    • w
    • su
  58. Which option for the usermod command can be used to specify a user’s group ID (either primary or secondary)?

    (choose two)

    • -g
    • -S
    • -s
    • -G
  59. The groupmod command can be used to add users to a group.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  60. Which of the following files contains user IDs?

    • /etc/passwd
    • /etc/shadow
    • /etc/group
    • /etc/usr
  61. Which of the following commands, run as root, will prevent the user bob from logging in?

    • usermod -L bob
    • usermod -D bob
    • usermod -d bob
    • usermod -l bob
  62. What directory contains a user’s home directory?

    • /rootfs
    • /user
    • /
    • /home
  63. GIDs under 500 (or 1000) are usually reserved for what kind of groups?

    • Are not used for groups, but for user accounts
    • Administrators
    • User private groups (UPG)
    • System use
  64. A user cannot delete a file if they do not own it.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  65. The chown command permits changing group ownership done by root only.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  66. Which of the following commands will list hidden files as well as their ownership?

    • ls -a
    • ls -z
    • ls -l
    • ls -la
  67. Which of the following commands will set setuid for /usr/bin/program?

    • chmod 1755 /usr/bin/program
    • chmod 4755 /usr/bin/program
    • chmod 2755 /usr/bin/program
    • None of the above
  68. Setting setgid on a directory…

    • …will allow scripts in the directory to be executed as the group owner of the directory.
    • …will set the group owner of all files created in the directory to the group owner of the directory.
    • …is not allowed by the system.
    • …does nothing.
  69. Deleting a source file will break an associated hard link.

    True or False?

    • True
    • False
  70. Which of the following commands would create a hard link, link to file?

    • ln file link
    • ln -s link file
    • ln link file
    • ln -s file link